Body 3: Digestion and enzymes

Overview

Students will learn how the human digestive system provides the body with nutrients. They will investigate how enzymes work and how we test for different food groups.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD20 – National assessments and examinations are useful indicators of pupils’ outcomes, but they only represent a sample of what pupils have learned. Inspectors will balance outcomes with their first-hand assessment of pupils’ work.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No.12 – Respect children’s views and No.13 – Sharing thoughts freely.

Example Key Words

Enzyme

A protein which catalyses or speeds up a chemical reaction.

Benedicts

A solution that can be used to test for the presence of a reducing sugar.

Biuret

A chemical which turns purple or mauve in the presence of protein.

Iodine

A solution of iodine turns blue-black in the presence of starch.

Digestion

The breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into smaller soluble ones.

Body 4: Inheritance

Overview

Students will discover how chromosomes are halved during meiosis an then combined with new gened to produce unique offspring. They will then look at gene mutations in both animals and plants that may be damaging and lead to genetic disorders or death.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD13 – Ability to be reflective about their own beliefs and PD25 – Appreciating cultural differences that have shaped their own heritage and that of others.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No.8 – Identity, No.13 – Sharing thoughts freely and No.28 – Access to Education.

Example Key Words

DNA

The molecule in cells that stores genetic information. (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

Gene

A short section of DNA, found on a chromosome, which contains the instructions needed to make a protein (and so controls the development of a characteristic).

Chromosome

A long molecule of DNA found in the nucleus, which carries genes.

Mitosis

A type of cell division where a cell reproduces itself by splitting to form two identical offspring.

Meiosis

A type of cell division where a cell divides twice to produce four genetically different gametes. It occurs in the reproductive organs.

External Links

https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/z9pkmsg/revision/1
https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zg8f4qt/revision/1
https://classroom.thenational.academy/units/inheritance-variation-and-evolution-0224

Body 5: Homeostasis

Overview

Students will look at the cells in the body and how they can only survive within narrow physical and chemical limits. They will look at how our bodies control temperature, pH and sugar. They will also investigate the structure and function of our nervous system and how it can react. Finally, students will study the hormonal systems in reproduction and the menstrual cycle.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD14. Knowledge of, and respect for, different people’s faiths, feelings and values.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No.6 – Life, survival and development, No.13 – Sharing thoughts freely and No.28 – Access to Education.

Example Key Words

Homeostasis

The regulation of conditions inside your body (and cells) to maintain a stable internal environment, in response to changes in both internal and external conditions.

Hormone

A chemical messenger which travels in the blood to activate target cells.

Reflex

A fast automatic response to a stimulus.

Synapse

The connection between two neurones.

Neurone

A nerve cell. Neurones transmit information around the body, including to and from the central nervous system.

External Links

https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/zy468mn
https://classroom.thenational.academy/units/homeostasis-and-response-1a15

Ecology

Overview

Students will look at the sun as a source of energy that passes through ecosystems. They will look at materials including carbon and water and explain how they are continually recycled. They will look at species and how ecosystems are composed of complex communities of animals and plants that are dependent on each other. After looking at these systems they will look at how we as humans need to engage with the environment in a sustainable way.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD14 – Knowledge of, and respect for, different people’s faiths, feelings and values and PD13 – Ability to be reflective about their own beliefs (religious or otherwise) and perspective on life.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No.13 – Sharing thoughts freely, No.17 – Access to Information and No.28 – Access to Education.

Example Key Words

Communities

All the organisms that live in a habitat (plants and animals)

Ecosystems

The living organisms in a particular area, together with the non-living components of the environment.

Biotic

Living elements of an ecosystem, such as plants and animals.

Abiotic

Non-living elements of an ecosystem, such as climate, temperature, water, and soil type.

Biodiversity

The range of animals and plants in a given area.

External Links

https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/zxfd3k7
https://classroom.thenational.academy/units/ecology-a6da

Evolution

Overview

Students will look at variation that is generated by mutations and sexual reproduction and link to the basis for natural selection. They will learn how selective breeding can be used to produce favoured characteristics. Finally they will find out about genetic engineering and its huge potential benefits. This will be alongside genetic modification which still remains highly controversial.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD13 – Ability to reflect about their own beliefs (religious or otherwise) and perspective on life.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No.13 – Sharing thoughts freely, No.17 – Access to information and No.28 – Access to Education.

Example Key Words

Extinction

When no living individuals of a species remain.

Cloning

Making an identical copy of another organism.

Evolution

The changing of the inherited characteristics of a population over time.

Variation

The differences that exist between individuals.

Mutation

A random change in an organism’s DNA.

External Links

https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zsg6v9q/revision/1
https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zcqbdxs/revision/1
https://classroom.thenational.academy/units/inheritance-variation-and-evolution-0224

Rate and Extent of Chemical Change

Overview

Students will use their prior knowledge of chemical reactions and rates from KS3 as a foundation to study how rates of reaction can be calculated, and then explained using collision theory. The topic then focuses on reversible reactions (including the energy changes involved from KS3), and dynamic equilibria. Here the students will see how these can be used to a chemist’s advantage, using real-world contexts like the Haber Process.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD2 – Developing mutual respect / tolerance (practical work), PD15 – Sense of enjoyment and fascination and PD17 – Reflecting on experiences.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No.13 – Sharing thoughts freely, No.17 – Access to Information and No.28 – Access to Education.

Example Key Words

Reactants

Chemicals present before a chemical reaction. They react together to form new products.

Reversible Reaction

A chemical reaction which is able to be reversed and can have both a forwards and backwards direction.

Collision Theory

A theory used to predict the rates of chemical reactions based on the concept that for a chemical reaction to occur between 2 reactant particles, those 2 particles must collide.

Equilibrium

This is reached when a reversible reaction is in a closed system, and both the forwards and reverse reactions are occurring at the same rate.

Rate of Reaction

A measure of how rapidly a reactant is used up, or a product is formed, within a given time.

Organic Chemistry

Overview

Students will study the finite resource crude oil and how it is formed, extracted and refined. The topic will cover the uses of the hydrocarbon fractions obtained from crude oil, and the products which can be directly or indirectly obtained from it. From polymerisation of alkenes to alcohol and esters, this topic covers a range of products and reactions which we depend on crude oil for. The topic ends with a link to natural polymers including proteins from amino acids and the structure of DNA. This complements some key themes studied in the Biology GCSE too.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD15 – Sense of enjoyment and fascination and PD22 – Use of a range of social skills in different contexts (Group Work).

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No.13 – Sharing thoughts freely and No.28 – Access to Education.

Example Key Words

Crude Oil

A naturally occurring fossil fuel comprised of a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds of varying chain length.

Hydrocarbons

A compound made of only hydrogen and carbon atoms. They can be found naturally in Crude Oil.

Fractional Distillation

The process by which Crude Oil is refined by vaporising it and separating it out into different fractions of varying carbon chain length and boiling point.

Alkane

A homologous series of chemicals comprised of hydrocarbons containing single carbon – carbon (C-C) covalent bonds.

Alkenes

A homologous series of chemicals comprised of hydrocarbons which contain a double carbon – carbon (C=C) covalent bonds.

Chemical Analysis

Overview

Students will work as analysts and learn a range of qualitative tests to detect specific chemicals. This will include chromatography, gas tests, flame tests and chemical tests for positive and negative ions. Students will also study instrumental methods and how they are applied in real life scenarios like forensics.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD20 – National assessments and examinations are useful indicators of pupils’ outcomes, but they only represent a sample of what pupils have learned. Inspectors will balance outcomes with their first-hand assessment of pupils’ work and PD22 – Use of a range of social skills in different contexts, for example working and socialising with other pupils, including those from different religious, ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No.12 – Respect for Children’s views, No. 17 – Access to Information and No. 28 – Access to Education.

Example Key Words

Formulation

A useful substance synthetically made by mixing precise amounts of ingredients, for example toothpaste.

Chromatography

A separation technique using a mobile and stationary phase. For example dyes being separated out of ink in paper chromatography.

Mobile Phase

The phase which moves through the stationary phase during chromatography. For example the solvent in paper chromatography.

Flame Test

A method to test the positive ions present in a solution by putting a sample of the solution into a Bunsen Burner flame and observing the colour change.

Precipitate

The solid product which comes out of a solution following a chemical reaction.

Chemistry of the Atmosphere

Overview

This topic covers how the Earth’s atmosphere has evolved and how it is changing. Students will learn how changes are sometimes natural and sometimes due to human activity. Pupils will go on to understand the problems caused by increased air pollutants and how we can reduce human impact on the atmosphere.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD13 – Ability to be reflective about their own beliefs (religious or otherwise) and perspective on life, PD14 – Knowledge of, and respect for, different people’s faiths, feelings and values and PD15 – Sense of enjoyment and fascination in learning about themselves, others and the world around them.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No.13 – Sharing thoughts freely and No.28 – Access to Education.

Example Key Words

Nitrogen

A diatomic gas, which was released from volcanoes and has slowly built up within our atmosphere over billions of years.

Greenhouse Gas

A gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation. Carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons are examples of greenhouse gases.

Carbon Footprint

The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere as a result of the activities of a particular individual, organisation, or community.

Acid Rain

Acidic rain formed when oxides of nitrogen and sulphur react with water in the clouds.

Carbon monoxide

A toxic odourless gas produced from the incomplete combustion of fuels.

Using Resources

Overview

Students will learn about the Earth’s resources and how humans use them. This will include how waste and sewage water are treated and how potable water in generated. Students will also study how products life cycles are assessed and how humans strive to reduce, reuse and recycle the Earth’s finite resources. Preventing corrosion, synthesising fertilisers and the Haber Process are also covered, which links back to the Rate and Extent of Chemical Change topic from Year 10.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD13 – Ability to be reflective about their own beliefs (religious or otherwise) and perspective on life, PD15 – Sense of enjoyment and fascination in learning about themselves, others and the world around them and PD16 – Use of imagination and creativity in their learning.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No.13 – Sharing thoughts freely, No.17 – Access to Information and No.24 – Health, water, food and environment.

Example Key Words

Finite resource

A non-renewable natural resource from the Earth.

Potable Water

Water which has been treated to be, or is naturally, safe to drink.

Waste Water

Water produced from urban lifestyles and industrial processes which requires treating to remove organic matter and harmful substances.

Bioleaching

The use of bacteria to extract metals from low grade ores.

LCAs - Life Cycle Assessment

An assessment of the environmental impact a product has over the key stages of its life cycle.

Energy 3

Overview

In this topic, pupils build on their foundation knowledge of Energy from Year 7 and 9. This topic focuses on quantifying energy within stores – how much kinetic energy is stored, or how much energy is required to change an object’s state, for example. Pupils should also review the keywords from previous Energy topics in Year 7 and 9.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of the topic includes: PD2 – Developing and deepening pupils’ understanding of mutual respect and tolerance (team and or group work).
PD16 – Use of imagination and creativity in their learning.
PD17 – Willingness to reflect on their experiences.

The main UN Rights of a Child are No. 13 – Sharing thoughts freely and No. 28 – Access to Education

Example Key Words

Kinetic Energy

The energy stored by a moving object. Calculated using the formula Ek = 1/2mv^2

Gravitational Potential Energy

The energy stored by an object raised in a gravitational field. Calculated using Ep = mgh

Elastic Potential Energy

The energy stored by an object that has been stretched or compressed. Calculated using Ee=1/2ke^2

Internal (Thermal) Energy

Thermal Energy is the internal energy stored by the particles in an object. The hotter said object is, the more those particles move and the more thermal energy it stores.

Temperature

Temperature is MEAN (average) thermal energy of an object or system.

Electricity 3

Overview

In this topic, pupils use their mathematical abilities to predict the behaviour of electrical properties in circuits, ranging from series and parallel circuits, to particular components, such as thermistors and light dependent resistors. Pupils should also review the keywords from previous Electricity topics in Year 7 and 9.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD2 – Developing and deepening pupils’ understanding of mutual respect and tolerance (team and or group work).
PD16 – Use of imagination and creativity in their learning.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No. 13 – Sharing thoughts freely and No. 28 – Access to Education.

Example Key Words

LDR

A Light Dependent Resistor is a resistor whose resistance depends upon how much light falls upon it. The brighter the light the lower the resistance.

Thermistor

A Thermistor is a resistor whose resistance depends upon how hot its surroundings are. The hotter the temperature the lower the resistance.

Diode

A diode acts like an electrical valve, it allows charge to flow very easily in one direction but has a massive resistance in the opposite direction.

Potential Difference

The work done by a Coulomb of charge between two points in a circuit. Measured in Volts, V.

Current

The rate of flow of charge. Measured in Amps, A.

Electricity 3

Overview

In this topic, pupils use their mathematical abilities to predict the behaviour of electrical properties in circuits, ranging from series and parallel circuits, to particular components, such as thermistors and light dependent resistors. Pupils should also review the keywords from previous Electricity topics in Year 7 and 9.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD2 – Developing and deepening pupils’ understanding of mutual respect and tolerance (team and or group work).
PD16 – Use of imagination and creativity in their learning.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No. 13 – Sharing thoughts freely and No. 28 – Access to Education.

Example Key Words

LDR

A Light Dependent Resistor is a resistor whose resistance depends upon how much light falls upon it. The brighter the light the lower the resistance.

Thermistor

A Thermistor is a resistor whose resistance depends upon how hot its surroundings are. The hotter the temperature the lower the resistance.

Diode

A diode acts like an electrical valve, it allows charge to flow very easily in one direction but has a massive resistance in the opposite direction.

Potential Difference

The work done by a Coulomb of charge between two points in a circuit. Measured in Volts, V.

Current

The rate of flow of charge. Measured in Amps, A.

Atomic Structure 1

Overview

In this topic, pupils will learn about the three main types of ionising radiation, how we measure the decay of radioactive isotopes, the health impacts of these and how nuclear fusion and fission will impact the future of our planet.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD14 – Knowledge of, and respect for, different people’s faiths, feelings and values.

PD15 – Sense of enjoyment and fascination in learning about themselves, others and the world around them. The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No. 12 – Respect for children’s views and No. 13 – Sharing thoughts freely

Example Key Words

Ionising Radiation

Radiation emitted from an unstable isotope, that has the ability to ionise other atoms. Usually in the form of alpha, beta, gamma or a neutron.

Irradiation

Exposing objects to radiation is called irradiation. The term applies to all types of radiation including radiation from the nuclei of atoms.

Contamination

Contamination occurs if an object has a radioactive material introduced into it. An apple exposed to the radiation from cobalt-60 is irradiated but an apple with cobalt-60 injected into it is contaminated.

Half life

The time taken for the radioactivity emitted by a sample to halve.

Count Rate

Count rate is the radiation detected (counted) from a sample. It is not always the same as the radiation emitted by the sample.

Forces 4

Overview

In this topic, pupils build on their knowledge of forces, a fundamental part of Physics, from KS3. Pupils will discover the impact of Isaac Newton on our understanding of forces, how centre of mass and moments are used in engineering, through to predicting the elasticity of materials based on the work of Robert Hooke. Pupils should also review the keywords from previous Forces topics in Year 7, 8 and 9.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD2 – Developing and deepening pupils’ understanding of mutual respect and tolerance (team and or group work).
PD17 – Willingness to reflect on their experiences.
PD20 – Use of hinge point questions and/or exam questions as useful indicators of pupils’ outcomes. Balance outcomes with first-hand assessment of pupils’ work.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No. 13 – Sharing thoughts freely and No. 28 – Access to Education

Example Key Words

Momentum

Moving objects have a tendency to keep moving. This is called momentum; it depends on how big (the mass) and how fast (the velocity) of the object are.

Moment

The turning effect of a force. A longer lever exerts a greater moment as does a larger force.

Resolving Forces

Any force will have a horizontal and vertical component. Splitting a force into these two components is called resolving.

Equilibrium

If the clockwise moments are equal to the anticlockwise moments, the system is in equilibrium.

Resultant Force

The overall force acting on an object. This should have a magnitude and direction.

Waves 2/3

Overview

In this topic, pupils build on their fundamental knowledge of waves from Year 8. They will learn about how energy is transferred as electromagnetic radiation and the uses of these different waves, ranging from optics through to medicine. Pupils will learn how to calculate the speed of waves through different matter. Pupils should also review the keywords from previous Year 8 Waves topic.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD2 – Developing and deepening pupils’ understanding of mutual respect and tolerance (team and or group work).
PD16 – Use of imagination and creativity in their learning.
PD17 – Willingness to reflect on their experiences.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No. 13 – Sharing thoughts freely and No 29 – Aims of Education

Example Key Words

Frequency

How many times something happens per seconds is its frequency. A wave with a frequency of 10Hz completes 10 waves per second.

Transmission

A wave that passes through or across a material is said to be transmitted.

Refraction

A process by which a wave changes speed and sometimes direction as it enters a denser or less dense medium.

Reflection

There are two types of reflection – specular and diffuse. Diffuse – when light is reflected off a surface and is scattered in different directions. Specular – reflection in which light travelling towards a surface in one direction is all reflected in a single direction.

Black Body

There are no known objects that are perfect at absorbing or emitting all the radiation, of every possible frequency, that may be directed at it. Some objects do, however, come close to this and these are referred to as “black bodies”.

Magnetism 2

Overview

Pupils will develop an appreciation of how electricity and magnetism are closely linked, by looking at processes such as the Motor and Generator Effect. They will learn how magnetism is used to record and listen to music, and how “Energy Resources” actually create electrical current. Pupils should also review the keywords from the previous Year 8 Magnetism topic.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic includes: PD2 – Developing and deepening pupils’ understanding of mutual respect and tolerance (team and or group work).
PD16 – Use of imagination and creativity in their learning.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No. 2 – No discrimination and No. 13 – Sharing thoughts freely

Example Key Words

Induced

Unlike a permanent magnet, an induced magnet only becomes a magnet when it is placed in a magnetic field. The induced magnetism is quickly lost when the magnet is removed from the magnetic field.

Motor Effect

A wire carrying a current creates a magnetic field. This can interact with another magnetic field, causing a force that pushes the wire at right angles. This is called the motor effect.

Generator Effect

A potential difference can be induced (created) in a conductor when there is movement between the conductor and a magnetic field. This is called electromagnetic induction and is often referred to as the generator effect.

Alternator/Dynamo

An alternating current (AC) generator (or alternator) is a device that produces an alternating potential difference. A dyanmo is a is another device that produces a potential difference, which is DC.

Transformer

Transformers are used to increase or decrease the potential difference of alternating currents. A transformer consists of two coils of wire wound on a metal core.

Space Physics 2

Overview

Pupils will learn about the formation of stars and study evidence to show that our universe is ever expanding. They will discover how objects remain in orbit, and how scientific theories are ever developing and evolving. Pupils should also review the keywords from the previous Year 8 Space Physics topic.

The main SMSC/Personal Development content of this topic include: PD13 – Ability to be reflective about their own beliefs (religious or otherwise) and perspective on life.
PD14 – Knowledge of, and respect for, different people’s faiths, feelings and values.
PD16 – Use of imagination and creativity in their learning.

The main UN Rights of a Child covered are No. 2 – No discrimination and No. 13 Share thoughts freely.

Example Key Words

Stable orbit

A stable orbit is one in which the satellite’s speed is just right – it will not move off into space or spiral into the Earth, but will travel around a fixed path.

Centripetal force

Force, needed for circular motion, which acts towards the centre of a circle.

Red shift

The change in wavelength of light from a distant star moving away from Earth.

Big Bang Theory

The scientific theory that describes the early development of the Universe.

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

In 1948, it was suggested that if the Universe started with an explosion, there should be microwave background radiation in space left over from the explosion. This radiation was discovered in 1964. It is called cosmic microwave background radiation or CMBR.